Cognitive skills

Inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning means generalization based on individual experiences. It is a fundamental means of acquiring new knowledge and applying the acquired knowledge in novel situations. Inductive reasoning is one of the most widely researched cognitive skills. It is compared to a number of cognitive phenomena: general intelligence, problem-solving skills or learning ability.
The tests used in grades 3-11 were constructed by Benő Csapó. The instruments applied in grades 3 and 4 constitute of 4 subtests: letter sequences, number analogies, word analogies and number sequences. 
The test used to measure inductive reasoning in grades 1 and 2 consists of 37 figural items and was developed by Gyöngyvér Molnár. Considering the age of the target population special efforts were made to construct a nonverbal test, i. e. to include the most pictures and figures possible and to minimize text quantity. The structure of the test is based on Klauer's definition of inductive reasoning, thus individual thinking operations (generalization, discrimination, cross-classification, recognizing relations, discriminating relations, system formation) are measured on individual subtests.
Major Publications
Csapó, B. (1994): Development of inductive reasoning. Magyar Pedagógia, 94. 1–2. sz. 53–80. (in Hungarian)

Csapó, B (1997): Development of inductive reasoning: Cross-sectional measurements in an educational context. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20. 4. sz. 609–626.

Csapó, B. (1998): The means of knowledge construction: inductive reasoning. In: Csapó, B. (ed.): School based knowledge. Osiris Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. 251–280. (in Hungarian)

Csapó, B. (2002): The means of knowledge construction: inductive reasoning. In: Csapó, B. (ed.): School based knowledge. (2nd edition) Osiris Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. 261-290. (in Hungarian) 

Csapó, B. (2001): An analysis of the development of inductive reasoning on the basis of a large-scale survey. Magyar Pedagógia, 3. sz. 373-391.

Molnár, Gy. (2008): The development of inductive reasoning in the early years of primary school. Paper presented at the 8th National Conference on Educational, Budapest, Hungary. 13-15, november, 2008 (in Hungarian)

Molnár, Gy., & Csapó, B. (2010): The development of inductive reasoning between the ages of 6 and 17. Paper presented at the 10th National Conference on Education. Budapest, Hungary, 4-6, november, 2010 (in Hungarian)
Measurement points:
Spring, 2005: Sample 1 (grade 9) and sample 2 (grade 6)  
Spring, 2007: Sample 3 (grade 4) 
Spring, 2008: Sample 3 (grade 5) 
Spring, 2009: Sample 4 (grade 1) 
Combinative reasoning
The assessment of the development of combinative reasoning in Hungary started in the Department of Education, József Attila University, Szeged at the end of the 1970's. The structure of the tasks was constructed based on the eight combinative operations identified in the preliminary work of theoretical analysis. The test consisted of altogether 12 – 6 formal and 6 pictorial – tasks, each with six different structures: repetitive and non-repetitive variations, non-repetitive combinations, all repetitive variations, all subsets and Descartes multiplications. In the formal tasks students had to construct a structure of numbers and letters, according to the predefined conditions. As opposed to pictorial tasks, in formal tasks no direct image can foster the work of solving the task. The test was constructed by Benő Csapó.
Major publications
Csapó, B. (1979): The combinative ability and the preconditions of its assessment. Acta Univ. Szeg. de A. J. nom. Sectio Paed. et Psych. Ser. Spec. Paed., Szeged. (in Hungarian)

Csapó, B. (1983): The combinative ability and the assessment of its operations among 14-year-olds. Magyar Pedagógia, 83. 1. sz. 31–50. (in Hungarian)

Csapó, B. (1988): The structure and development of the combinative ability. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. (in Hungarian)

Csapó, B. (1987c): Developing combinative ability in primary education. Pedagógiai Szemle, 9. sz. 844–853. (in Hungarian)

Csapó, B. (2001): An analysis of the combinative ability: A large-scale survey. Magyar Pedagógia, 4. sz. 511-530. (in Hungarian)
Measurement points:
Spring, 2005: Sample 2 (grade 6)